THEME: CONTEND FOR THE FAITH
I. Introduction. V. 1-2
1. "Jude" = the English form of the name "Judas"; it is amazing that the Holy Spirit would choose a man with the
name "Judas" which stands for the betrayer "Judas Isacariot," the greatest of all apostates (this book deals with
apostasy--falling away from the truth in the last days--day of grace; II Tim. 3:1-5; 4:2-4; II Thess. 2:3); Judas
was one who walked with Jesus but knew Him not as Lord and Saviour, and knew the Word in his mind, but did
not know the Living Word in his heart; Jude is the human instrument the Holy Spirit moved on to write this book
(letter; epistle). (II Peter 1:21)
2. "Servant" = bondslave; one who is in a permanent relation of servitude to another with his will altogether
consumed in the will of the other; devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests; those whose
service is used by Christ in extending and advancing His cause among men.
3. "Jesus" = the earthly name of God incarnate (God robed with flesh); the Saviour of mankind.
4. "Christ" = the Anointed One; the Messiah of the OT.
5. "Brother" = from the same womb; refers in context to the physical birth.
6. "James" = the one who wrote the book of James which proclaims that "faith produces works," while Jude
proclaims "the lack of faith produces evil works;" both James and Jude are believed to be the half brothers of
Jesus for Mary had four more boys (named in Mark 6:3) which did not believe that Jesus was the Messiah (John
7:5; Psa. 69:7-8), but some time after the death of Jesus they did (Acts 1:14; Gal. 1:19); James became the
voice of the brethren in the early church.
7. It is interesting to note that neither James nor Jude referred to themselves as the brother of our Lord according
to the flesh but referred to themselves as a "bondslave (servant) of the Lord."
8. "To them" = saints; not only in Jude's day but today as well; Jude gives a three-fold description involving three
parts of the Godhead.
1) Sanctified by God the Father.
9. "Sanctified" = to be holy; to purify internally; to set apart; derived from the root word translated "saint"; does
not mean to live without sin, but just set apart from the world and unto God; the tense is perfect which refers to
a completed act in past time with present existing results, in context--permanent results; this word simply put,
means they who were saved, are still saved, and always will be saved; refers to positional sanctification.
10. "By" = "in"; in God is the only place one can be holy; equivalent to the phrase "in Christ" because Christ is
God (I Cor. 1:2); refers to our spiritual location.
11. "God the Father" = first person of the trinity.
2) Preserved in Jesus Christ.
12. "Preserved" = to keep; to guard; to hold firmly; to watch over; this word expresses a tender loving watchful
care; the tense is perfect which indicates a past completed action with existing results which mean at the point
of salvation (justification) the Lord begin guarding His children and they are in a permanent state of being
carefully watched; therefore, one cannot be lost after they are saved because the saved are preserved better than
"pears" for pears may come unsealed but not so with the saints.
13. "In" = preposition supplied because the Greek construction demands one although not supplied in the Greek;
context and Greek markings determine which preposition to supply but when context is not plain then theology
takes over; this it the situation here; the Greek has three cases and all are marked the same; therefore, three
prepositions could be supplied and all three be theologically correct.
A. Locative case = location = "in" we are kept in Jesus Christ (John 10:27-28)
B. Instrumental case = means by which something is done = "by" = we are kept by Jesus Christ. (John 17:12
C. Dative Case = personal interest, showing advantage or disadvantage = "for" = we are kept for Jesus Christ;
we are His inheritance and for that joy He endured the cross. (Eph. 1:11; "we have obtained an inheritance" = we
were designated as a heritage; Eph. 1:18; Heb. 12:2)
14. We are kept in Christ, by Christ, and for Christ until salvation is complete (when our bodies are glorified; I
3) Called--Work of the Holy Ghost.
15. "Called" = to summon; to invite; divinely selected and speaks of the divine invitation to salvation; refers to
the effectual call of Romans 8:30 which is made effectual (capable of producing the desired effect, in this case--
justification) by the sanctifying work of the Holy Ghost (I Peter 1:2); this call is from darkness to light, from
bondage to liberty, from the company of sinful men to fellowship with Christ, from a trust in their own
righteousness to a dependence on His, to grace here and glory hereafter.
16. This call will only come to those in whom the Holy Ghost has completed His work. (John 16:8-11)
1. "Mercy" = God's love in action; God's love outreached to those in need; kindness or good will toward the
miserable and the afflicted, joined with a desire to help them; mercy keeps us from getting what we deserve; this
is not talking about justifying mercy, because this is written to the saved (to them sanctified), but sanctifying
mercy which keeps the saints from being destroyed each time we sin and it is ours for the asking (Heb. 4:15-16;
Pro. 28:13; Lam. 3:22-23); we usually think of mercy for the lost but the saved also need mercy daily in these
days of apostasy.
2. "Unto you" = the sanctified, preserved, and called; the saved.
3. "Peace" = a state of tranquility of one's soul and spirit in the midst of troubling circumstances based on the
consciousness of a right relationship with God; refers to sanctifying (progressive) peace, not justifying
(positional) of Rom. 5:1, for he is writing to those already justified (saved; sanctified; verse 1) this peace is the
peace of God that passes all understanding, even in troubled times (Phil. 4:6-7); we (saved) are fighting from
victory, not for victory.
4. "Love" = agape; the God kind of love shed abroad in our hearts at salvation (Rom. 5:5); the first part of the
nine-fold fruit (singular) of the Spirit--present and growing in every believer (Gal. 5:22-23); fulfillment of the law
(Mat. 22:37-40); described in I Cor. 13:4-8a; the kind that God loved us with and still loves us with. (John 3:16;
Rom. 5:8; 8:32,35,37-39).
5. "Be multiplied" = to be increased; to be richly allotted to; to be filled to the brim and overflowing; speaks of
an overflowing measure, refers to all three--mercy, peace, and love.
II. Contend for the Faith. V. 3-23
1. This verse states plainly the reason for writing this letter--contend for the faith.
2. "Earnestly contend" = one word in the Greek; means to agonize in defense of; to strive or fight strenuously in
defense of; speaks of a vigorous, intense, determined struggle to defeat the opposition; the word comes from the
fierce competition of athletes contending in a contest, striving to win.
3. "The faith" = the whole body of God's revealed truth delivered once; refers to the written Word which is
4. "Once" = once for all; no additions needed, nothing extra needed, no new revelation to be made.
5. "Delivered" = to deliver to one something to keep, use, take care of, and manage; the idea is that God gave
the Word to the saints as a deposit of truth to be guarded and it is not to be added to or taken away from. (Rev.
6. We are living in a day when people are adding to the Word of God, subtracting from the Word of God, and
putting man's writings on par with the Scripture. This is a day when people need to "contend for the faith."
7. "Saints" = saved.
8. Jude wrote this letter to "exhort" = this is an important word and a powerful word; it is the verb form of the
word "Comforter" in John 14:16; 16:7 and means, called alongside to help or aid; Jude is saying, "I am alongside
you, pleading with you, urging you, just exhorting you with all that is within me, that you contend for the faith."
9. He wanted to write about "the common salvation." In fact he said he "gave all diligence" to do so.
10. "Gave" = to make ready; to prepare.
11. "Diligence" = to hasten; desire earnestly; earnestness in accomplishing, promoting, or striving after anything.
12. "Salvation" = justification; saved from the penalty of sin; called "common" = does not refer to something
cheap or ordinary but to something the saints all share or have in common--salvation; every person that is saved
has the same ingredients in their experience even though the quantity of those ingredients may vary because
every salvation experience is personal; the saved also understand when you speak of these ingredients--godly
sorrow, Holy Ghost conviction, unbelief, righteousness, judgment, lostness, understanding, repentance, faith,
obeying the gospel, effectual call, quickening, eternal life, sanctified, preserved, and etc.
13. Even though he desired to write about our common salvation, he said it was needful to write for you to
contend for the faith.
14. "It was needful" = to necessitate; to compel; having a drive to; constrained; this was due to an inner
compulsion which was due to the moving of the Holy Ghost upon his heart (II Peter 1:21); the Greek construction
implies that Jude had to write this epistle at once; it could not be written at leisure, like the one he had
previously desired to write; there was a necessity of writing to those he wrote, for them to contend for the faith.
1. Who is to contend?
15. "Beloved" = esteemed; dear; does not mean the beloved of Jude, those whom he loves, though it is true of
him; means literally "divinely loved ones," those who are loved of God; an expression of strong affection used by
writers when addressing the brethren; refers to all who are (verse 1) sanctified, preserved, and called; thus it
means all preachers, deacons, Sunday school teachers, pew sitters; all who have been truly saved are exhorted to
contend for the faith.
2. Why contend for the Faith? V. 4-16
1) The Apostates' Subtle Perversions. V. 4
1. "Certain" = someone; real beings not just made up.
2. "Crept in unawares" = one word in the Greek; means to enter secretly; to settle in alongside; to slip in the
side door; word is used for one who entered a place without being noticed; corresponds to Jesus' parable in Mat.
13:24-28a; described by Paul in II Cor. 11:13-15 ("transformed" = refers to the act of an individual changing his
outward expression by assuming an expression put on from the outside, an expression that does not come from
nor is it representative of what he is in his inner character = tares = apostates).
3. "Before ordained" = to write previously; to write beforehand; this is not saying these men were predestined to
be apostate teachers, but that holy men of old were moved to write or prophecy that this very thing would
happen; Paul wrote about it in I Tim. 4:1-2 and Peter wrote about it in II Peter 2:1.
4. "Of old" = long ago; even before Paul and Peter; in OT time, probably referring to Enoch. (verse 14-15)
5. "Condemnation" = judgment due to their wicked way.
6. "Ungodly" = destitute of reverential awe toward God; one who actively practices the opposite of what the fear
of God demands.
7. "Turning" = pervert; exchange; to transpose two things, one of which is put in place of the other--puts
lasciviousness in the place of grace.
8. "Lasciviousness" = unbridled lust; shamelessness; acknow-ledges no restraints; refuse to acknowledge the
authority of God's Word, instead sits in judgment upon it.
9. "Grace" = unmerited favor; refers to the merciful kindness by which God, exerting His holy influence (through
the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit) upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in
Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to exercise of Christian virtues (moral excellence and
10. This phrase simply means perverting the doctrine of the grace of God and making the doctrine of the grace of
God a license to sin. Titus 2:11-12 states otherwise. Grace is not works but grace will cause one to work. (Eph.
2:8-9,10; Gal. 5:1,13)
11. "Denying" = contradict; means that the doctrine which the apostates held were in fact a denial of the only
true God, and of the Redeemer of men.
12. First "Lord" = master; absolute ruler; described as "only" = meaning there is only one absolute ruler yet
identified as "God" and "our Lord Jesus Christ" = referring to two parts of the trinity.
13. "God" = God the Father, the first person of the trinity.
14. Second "Lord" = the owner; one who has control of the person; master.
15. "Jesus" = the earthly name of God incarnate (God robed with flesh); the Saviour of mankind.
16. "Christ" = the Anointed One; the Messiah of the O.T.
17. Denying the Lord Jesus is the mark of our day. Some write books that deny Him. Others preach against the
truth of God while others deny Him by the life they live--they will not do what He says which is probably the
worst denial of all. (Luke 6:46) This is described by Paul in II Tim. 3:5, Titus 1:16, and also by James in James
2) The Apostates' certain doom. V. 5-7
1. "Will" = to be minded; to have a purpose; to will deliberately.
2. "Put in remembrance" = one word in the Greek; to cause one to remember; to recall to mind.
3. "Once" = at one time.
4. "Knew" = to have absolute positive knowledge of the facts; not that they had forgotten but it may not have
been fresh on the mind.
5. We could say, "call to attention what you already know." Repetition impresses upon one the truth of God's
6. "This" = refers to three historical examples of apostasy and their doom.
a. The children of Israel.
7. "Lord" = Jehovah; master; owner.
8. "Having saved" = to rescue from danger; refers to the nation of Israel being delivered from bondage.
9. "The people" = the children of Israel.
10. "Land of Egypt" = the country of Egypt in northeast Africa, where the children of Israel were in bondage.
11. "Destroyed" = to kill; refers to all 20 years old and up dying in the wilderness because they did not believe
God at Kadesh-Barnea and would not enter the promise land. (Num. 13:26-14:2, 28-29)
12. "Believed" = place confidence in; to be persuaded of; negated by "not."
b. The angels.
1. "Angels" = created beings of God; refers to one-third of the angels that followed Lucifer in his rebellion against
God. (Ezk. 28:13-15; Isa. 14:12-14)
2. "Kept" = to guard; to attend to carefully; take care of; negated by "not"; the angels did not fulfill their
obligation of carefully guarding and maintaining their original position in which they were created.
3. "First estate" = first place of power.
4. "Left" = to leave behind.
5. "Habitation" = a dwelling place; heaven.
6. "Their own" = one's own private personal, unique possession; indicates that heaven is the peculiar, private
abode of the angels; but they abandoned heaven to follow their leader, Lucifer.
7. "He" = God; the Lord.
8. "Hath reserved" = to attend carefully; to guard; to keep; the tense is perfect which indicates that they have
been placed under a complete and careful guard, with the result that they are in a state of being under this
complete and careful guard continually.
9. "Everlasting" = eternal.
10. "Chains" = a band or bond; refers to being in custody, detained in a certain place--everlasting "darkness" =
the darkness of the nether world--tartrus. (II Peter 2:4)
11. "Unto" = preposition meaning to come to a point, place, and a time with a purpose.
12. "Judgment" = sentence of condemnation.
13. "The great day" = refers to the day of the Lord at which time all the unsaved as well as the fallen angels will
be cast in the lake of fire (hell) prepared for the devil and his angels. (Mat. 25:41)
14. We know the devil and his demons are loose today but they can only do what the Lord allows because they
are under careful guard. (Job 1:8-10) The Lord is the only one who can say, "It is finished" when it is not yet
complete. But when He says such, it is as good as done.
c. Sodom and Gomorrha.
1. "Even as" = suggest that the judgment of these cities parallel the judgment of the angels of verse 6.
2. "Sodom" = name means burning; a city in the eastern part of Judah that was destroyed when the Lord rained
fire and brimstone on it; it is believed to be now covered by the Dead Sea.
3. "Gomorrha" = Gomorrah in OT; name means submersion; same location as Sodom.
4. "The cities about them" = refers to Admah and Zeboim which are named in Deut 29:23 and there may have
been some others not named; Zoar was not destroyed. (Gen. 19:20-22)
5. "In like manner" = "in the manner like to these" = refers to the cities not named of being guilty of the same
sins as Sodom and Gomorrha.
6. "Giving themselves over to fornication" = one word in the Greek; signifies a giving of one's self utterly over to
sexual immorality named specifically as "going after strange flesh" = refers to flesh that is different from what
God ordained; horrible sexual immorality, not simply with women not their wives or in other nations, but even
unnatural uses--homosexuality; one is not born with this desire; it is against nature (Rom. 1:26-27; Gen. 13:13;
18:20-21); called an abomination in Ezk. 16:45-50 along with a list of her other sins--hating her husband and
children, pride, fulness of bread, abundance of idleness, and did not strengthened the hand of the poor and
needy; sounds like America!
7. As a result of their horrible sin, God destroyed these cities with fire and brimstone; therefore, these cities are
"set forth for an example." Also the sin of homosexuality is called Sodomy, so named after the city of Sodom.
8. "Set forth" = to lie exposed; to place before the eyes.
9. "Example" = to display or exhibit; refers to these cities as being held up to view as a warning; refers to the
individuals in the cities and not the city itself.
10. "Suffering" = to hold under; to put under.
11. "Vengeance" = judgment or punishment of "eternal fire" = refers to the lake of fire (hell); indicates that they
are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot's time.
12. Jude did not mention Lot but Peter did in II Peter 2:6-8. If it were not for these verses, we would think Lot
was lost. Lot was a saved man but was not saved until he was already in Sodom for several years; therefore, you
cannot use Lot for an example of a backslidden Christian. A saved person cannot go years in sin without God
dealing severely with him. (If you want more information on this subject order the article from The Persuader
entitled "When and Where was Lot Saved?"
3) Description of the Apostates' character and conduct. V. 8-11
1. "Likewise" = from two Greek words; means "in the same manner, but yet."
2. "Also" = refers to the apostates, that though they have these fearful examples before them, yet, they also
persist in their sin.
3. "Filthy dreamers" = termed used in the sense of being deceived with sensual images and carried away to an
irreverent course of conduct; "filthy" is not in the original but placed there by the translators which helps us to
have a true description of these apostates.
4. "Defile" = to pollute; contaminate; soil; used in a physical and moral sense, with the word "flesh" being literal
flesh, thus suggesting the sin of being morally unrestrained; this is one characteristic of every lost sinner. (Eph.
5. "Despise" = to do away with; to set aside; disregard.
6. "Dominion" = mastery; authority; Lordship; used in NT of one who possesses dominion; translated
"government" in II Peter 2:10; this is not just speaking of government but included in this word is doing away
with the Lordship of Christ as verse 4b brings out; apostates do not want a Lord over them; they want to run
things their own way, do their own thing, and disregard all dominion in the state, the church, and the family;
they despise all authority; this means those who deny the Lordship of Jesus at salvation are apostates, even if
7. "Speak evil" = one word in the Greek; means to speak reproachfully of; rail at; revile.
8. "Dignities" = word means splendor; brightness; a most glorious condition; a most exalted state; used of the
majesty or glory of angels; can be applied to government officials but in context refers to created beings.
9. Verse 9 gives an example of how these dignities should be dealt with.
1. "Michael" = name means "who is like God."
2. "Archangel" = ruler of angels; there seems to be three with each ruling one third of the angels; their names--
Michael, Gabriel, and Lucifer; Lucifer fell along with one third of the angels he ruled. (Rev. 12:3-4)
3. "Contending" = to oppose; strive with; the tense reveals an action that went on for some time.
4. "Devil" = word means prone to slander; also translated "false accuser and slanderer"; one of Satan's names
which describes him as one who falsely accuses and maliciously slanders.
5. "Disputed" = to converse; discourse with one; argue; discuss.
6. "About" = concerning.
7. "Body of Moses" = refers to Moses' body after his death in Mount Nebo in the land of Moab; Deut. 34:5-6 is the
only other place Moses' body is mentioned and what Jude speaks of is not recorded anywhere else in the Bible; it
may have been known by the Jews as they passed the story from generation to generation by word of mouth; and
yet this information could have been given by the Holy Ghost to Jude. (II Peter 1:21)
8. "Durst" = to be bold and deal boldly; negated by "not".
9. "Bring against" = to bring upon; used of accusers.
10. "Railing" = slander; to speak injurious to another.
11. "Accusation" = judgment; this phrase means a judgment pronounced in reproachful terms.
12. "The Lord" = Jehovah; master; owner.
13. "Rebuke" = admonish; this word means to rebuke another but without any effect upon the person rebuked,
thus not being convicted of any wrong doing on their part nor brought to the place of conviction or compassion;
different word for God's reproval of sinners--that rebuke is designed to bring conviction and confession.
14. How do you handle the devil and demons or fallen angels? Do what Michael did. If he was no match for the
devil then what makes man think he can command demons and such like. Rest assured we are no match for the
devil; therefore, we need the Lord's help.
15. One of the reasons that the devil was wanting Moses' body was so he could enshrine it and cause the children
of Israel to worship his body so that would stay in the wilderness and not enter Canaan. But God had greater
1. "These" = the apostates.
2. "Speak evil" = one word in the Greek; means to speak reproachfully of; rail at; revile.
3. "Those things which they know not" = things the apostates have no mental comprehension and knowledge
4. First "know" = to have absolute positive knowledge of the facts.
5. Second "know" = different word; means to understand; to be acquainted with.
6. "Naturally" = physically; by the aid of the bodily senses.
7. "Brute" = irrational; destitute of reason; even beasts know some things by what we might call "instinct."
8. "Beast" = an animal; Jude compared these apostates to animals.
9. "Corrupt" = to destroy; the Greek construction means by these things they are being brought to ruin; they were
heading for ruin as a result of indulging in those desires.
10. This is similar to what Paul said in Romans 1:18-32, which we call the Roman Road to Ruin:
A. Indifferent to light of conscience and creation (verse 19-20) will lead to:
B. Ingratitude = being unthankful (verse 21a) which leads to:
C. Ignorance = (verses 21b-22) which leads to:
D. Idolatry = (verse 23) which leads to:
E. Immorality = (verses 24-32) as God pulls back the restraints and turns apostates over to:
a. Uncleanness. (verses 24-25)
b. Vile affection. (verses 26-27)
c. Reprobate mind. (verse 28)
1. "Woe" = denunciation; speaks of judgment on all apostates; Jude then compares them to three OT characters
(apostates) who were known for their lack of reverence toward God even though they knew the truth of God at
one time and fell away from it.
2. Who was Cain? = the son of Adam; he farmed for a living.
3. Who was Balaam? = a false prophet; a preacher.
4. Who was Core? = Korah of the OT; a prince in Israel; a cousin to Moses. (Exo. 6:18,21)
5. Here we see a farmer, a preacher, and a prince. By using these three examples, Jude indicates that apostasy
does not hit just one group of people, it goes across the whole of society from a farmer to a preacher to a prince.
a. Gone in the way of Cain.
6. "Gone" = to take one's way; set out; to go on a journey; to become one's follower.
7. "Way" = a course of conduct; manner of thinking, feeling, and deciding; the way of Cain is "I'll do it my way" =
the way of man-made religion = the rejection of the revelation of God and the blood sacrifice; God required the
blood. (Gen. 4:1-7; I John 3:11-12, Heb. 11:4, Lev. 17:11, Heb. 9:22)
8. Instead of taking the knife and killing a lamb, Cain slew his brother in anger. He was a type of a religious,
natural man who believes in God and religion but says "I'll come my way. I don't care what God says." = an
apostate, lost and headed for judgment.
b. Ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward.
9. The story of Balaam is found in Numbers Chapters 22-26.
10. "Error" = a wandering; a straying about, whereby one is led astray from the right way.
11. "Reward" = dues paid for work; wages; it may have been more than money in Balaam's case--honor,
popularity, or applause.
12. His error involved leading others into sin in order to get personal gain. Balaam knew the truth but
deliberately led Israel into sin that he might get personal gain. (Deut. 23:3-4)
13. In his self righteous state he wanted to die the death of the righteous (Num. 23:10) but instead he died with
a sword because he caused others to trespass against the Lord (Num. 31:8,15-16); an apostate, lost and headed
14. These apostates, Jude refers to, "ran greedily" = word means to pour out; is used here of those who give
themselves up to a thing and rush headlong into it.
15. Balaam wanted the things of the world, which he got but he lost his own soul. The same thing will happen to
these apostates who "crept in unawares." (verse 4)
16. Peter refers to the "way of Balaam" (II Peter 2:15) which is called by Jude "error of Balaam which later was
called the "doctrine of Balaam" by the Lord Jesus as He writes to the church of Pergamos in Rev. 2:14. What is a
way becomes error finally becomes doctrine.
c. Perished in the gainsaying of Core.
17. "Core" = Korah of Numbers Chapter 16. (Num. 16:3,5, 28-33)
18. "Gainsaying" = opposition; rebellion; contradiction; speaking against the Word.
19. "Perished" = to destroy; to kill; implies they not only died but went to hell as well, and so will these
apostates Jude is speaking of, if they continue in the way of Cain, Balaam, and Core.
4) Further description of Apostates V. 12-13
1. In verses 12-13, five metaphors of nature are given to further describe these apostates. A metaphor is a
figure of speech in which one thing is likened to another.
a. Spots in your feast of charity = ever present
2. "Feast of charity" = refers to the love feast in the early Christian church; a fellowship meal eaten by the
Christians when they came together for worship; it was eaten in a person's house because that is where the
church of the first century met because they had no church building in which to meet.
3. "Spots" = word of a rock in the sea; ledge or reef; reefs are hidden and always pose danger for ships; refers to
men (apostates) who by their conduct damage others morally and wreck them.
4. "Feeding" = to tend a flock of sheep and supply their need; instead of feeding others, these apostates were
feeding themselves, furthering their own schemes and lusts instead of tending the flock of God.
5. "Without fear" = no respect and reverence for the Lord and His church; they were unashamed like Jer. 3:3; they
had no sense of guilt about participating in the love feasts of the saints.
6. These men who "crept in unawares" (verse 4) were elements of danger in the early church. (II Tim. 3:5)
b. Clouds without water = false promise.
7. I can remember as a boy a time when there was a drought. The corn was twisting badly, in need of water. A
large black cloud formed in the west, the area we got our rain from. The cloud gave a promise of rain, seemingly
charged with refreshing showers. Then the wind got in the cloud and broke it up and carried it away without one
drop of rain. The cloud gave a false promise. It looked as if it promised water and did not give one drop.
8. The apostates look as if they carry a message of help and hope when in reality they give a false hope, a false
promise because they have no stability but go which ever way the wind blows, usually to further their own cause.
c. Trees without fruit = barren profession.
9. "Whose fruit withereth" = barren; not yielding what it ought to yield.
10. "Twice dead" = not only showing forth no fruit as a dormant tree in the winter but the root is dead also;
reminds us of the stony ground hearer. (Mat. 13:20-21)
11. "Plucked up by the roots" = one word in the Greek; to root up; reveals the final outcome of such a tree and
applies to the eternal destruction (lake of fire) of all who hold on to their false profession that they are saved
and yet are not. (Mat. 15:13; John 15:1,6; Mat. 7: 21-23)
d. Raging waves of the sea = wasted efforts.
1. "Raging" = wild; savage; fierce; untamed; describing the waves of the sea.
2. "Foaming out" = to foam up or cast out as foam; refers to the turbulent waves of a polluted sea, casting up
seaweed and rubbish on the beach; the tense is continuous.
3. "Shame" = disgrace; dishonor.
4. These apostates are driven by their restless passions. They unblushingly, unashamedly exhibit in word and
deed their base and abandoned spirit. They spew out openly the things most people would hide with shame.
5. What a picture of a mouth professor and not a heart possessor--never any peace. They have an outward show
of tranquility and smiles on their faces at times, but their heart is yearning and ill at ease--never any real peace,
joy, happiness, nor satisfaction but always disturbed, tossed to and fro as the raging waves of the sea = wasted
e. Wandering stars = aimless coarse.
6. "Wandering stars" = refers to comets or what we call shooting stars.
7. "Reserved the blackness of darkness for ever" = engulfed in darkness.
8. A shooting star draws your attention to it for a moment above all the other stars because it is brighter. Then
it is gone and only blackness of darkness is seen.
9. The same is true with many "professors" (stony ground hearers)--apostates--they glow for a while and if not
careful some people will set their sights on them. But then that person fizzles out and you can not get him back
in church, and those who set their sights on him get shipwrecked.
10. The word "wandering" means that which leads astray or causes one to wander from the path.
11. In the olden days the sextant on a ship, when desiring to know their location in the ocean, always sighted on
the stars that were always in their place. They may not have been the brightest but they were consistently in
their place and could always be depended on to be there.
12. In like manner one needs to place their sights on those who are always in their place even though they may
not be the most outgoing "professor," but they can be depended on when times are good and even when times
are bad. Not so with the apostates. If you sight on them you will have an aimless coarse and join them in their
destruction in the lake of fire since there is reserved for them the "blackness of darkness for ever."